Recent Journals

JDOH - Volume 18 Number 3 (September 2017)

Journal of Disability and Oral Health Volume 18 Number 3 September 2017   Editorial       Conscious sedation using propofol for the treatment of patients with hypersensitive gag reflexes   C Dickinson, H M S Anwar, M Burke, E Heidari, S Koburunga, J Edwards and N Nizarali       Patient referrals to special needs dental units in Tasmania Australia   M A W T Lim and G L Borromeo       The oral health status of Special Olympics athletes in Trinidad and Tobago thirteen years later   Hema Singh, Rahul Naidu, Christina Royer and Ashley Meighan       Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and its implications for dental treatment FOP: A case report   J Doughty, C Steel, P Thakrar and N Kuma   iADH Invitation Continuing Professional Development Programme Diary Dates 2017-2018    Editorial       There are times when you realise the effect education plays in people’s lives and this invited speech delivered by a recent dental graduate to the combined Dental and Medical graduation ceremony at the University of Liverpool is one of them.       The speech, written and delivered by Dominic Price, speaks for itself and truly highlights the power of belief, trust and motivation. I felt this was something to share with others.       Shelagh Thompson, Liverpool, UK            Graduation Speech to University of Liverpool Dental and Medical Graduates July 2017       Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, distinguished guests, family, friends, and fellow graduates.   For those who don’t know me, I’m Dominic, a mature student, at least by definition anyway.  I have been asked to talk to you briefly today because there may just be one person in the room who might benefit from hearing my story. A quote I heard recently, “If you march fearlessly in the direction of your dreams, somehow the world conspires to help you”. For me, this sums up how I have ended up standing here talking to you today.       Thirteen years ago, I couldn’t see my dream through the fog of whatever it is that turns a teenager’s brain to mush. I loved learning but hated education, and those who asked me at the time what I wanted to do just got a confused mumble and a shrug in return. I dropped out of school with three AS levels at C and below and an unclassified grade. At the toss of a coin, I went to study plumbing at Further Education FE College rather than joining the Armed Forces, and four years later I was a craftsman for the gas board, a job which turned my relationship with education the right way up and strapped an engine on for good measure. Looking back, if I had resat at college and only achieved mediocre grades, I would not have been able to apply to dental school when I did. Not continuing was the right decision for me, both at the time and in the long term.       At this point three things happened in close succession involving 3 of the most influential women in my life;   • My mum had to be operated on by an Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon, which opened my eyes to the world of medicine.   • My step mum, who I had only known for a few years and who is a dentist, casually commented while talking about our jobs that, “Dentistry is just like plumbing, only smaller”!   • A friend in her final year of medical school told me about her university life, her plans to work and travel around the world, and how, “anyone can do it, you just have to work hard”.       With some help and guidance, I started using my annual leave to get work experience, which confirmed for me that if I was going to live without regret, I had to take a chance, so I handed in my notice, moved to the north west, and enrolled on an Access to Higher Education course (to mitigate my AS results (Advanced Subsidiary Level qualifications UK). At the time, there were only a handful of dental schools that would accept an Access course for entry criteria, and thankfully the University of Liverpool was one, I still remember the day I received the offer with such relief, surely the hard bit had been done.   I turned 25 in Fresher’s week. I had decided to live in halls of residence where everyone else was at least five years younger than me, but I am so pleased that I did because I had some amazing experiences and made friends for life. By the 2nd year, I was going out with that medical student, now doctor friend, who was doing exactly as she had planned and was working in Australia. It was while on holiday together that she had finished reading five books by the end of the second day and was trying to read mine over my shoulder but was getting frustrated at finishing two pages and having to wait five minutes for me to catch up, that I was harassed (she would prefer motivated) into ‘getting tested’. It wasn’t long before I was diagnosed with dyslexia, and suddenly there were tools and methods and systems in place to make life (and public speaking) easier.       Now life is not as perfect as social media makes out, and I ended up resitting the third year, but I needed to, and I don’t think I would have it any other way with hindsight. But there is always a positive and I had managed to persuade my girlfriend back from Australia and we were married a year later. During my repeat 3rd year my wife and I bought a house together, and while all this was going on I had become involved in the dental school student committee and the British Dental Student Association, so that by the time I was in 4th year I was the BDSA president and had the opportunity to work with the European Dental Student Association on a visiting programme in Stockholm.       In the 5th year, we had to go through national recruitment to Dental Foundation Training, and finals. This filled me with dread because I have a deep-seated discomfort with amateur dramatics, and both processes involve an element of performance. Thankfully, at the beginning of the year during a lecture, the Head of the Dental School Professor Callum Youngson offered to help anyone who wanted it, you just had to ask. So, I did. And in the weeks leading up to both milestone events, we discussed ways to manage my emotions and developed coping strategies to give me the best chance of performing well enough to get through. Since receiving the finals results my now four-week-old son was born and we moved home when he was a week old to be closer to family and my job starting in September.       So, from 17-year-old college dropout to married dental graduate, home owner, and new father, here are some things I’ve learned along the way:       • Throw yourself in at the deep end, take every opportunity that presents itself, you can do more than you think possible.   • Asking for help is a strength, not a weakness. Don’t be afraid of failure; use it to your advantage.   • Make as many friends as you can along the way, they are what get you through.       To end I would like to thank all the friends, staff and students alike, and family for getting us all here today, to congratulate you all for this massive achievement. Also to say that if you have a feeling that there is something you should do, no matter how sideways it is, do it, because somehow the world will conspire to help you. Thank you.       Dominic Price, BDS University of Liverpool, England UK         Conscious sedation using propofol for the treatment of patients with hypersensitive gag reflexes       C Dickinson1, H M S Anwar 2, M Burke1, E Heidari3, S Koburunga3, J Edwards4 and N Nizarali1       1. Consultant in Special Care Dentistry, 2. Specialist registrar in Periodontics; Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust; 3. Senior Specialist Clinical Teacher, King’s College London Dental Institute, 4. Consultant in Special Care Dentistry, King’s College Hospital NHS Trust           Abstract   Gagging is defined as an ejectory contraction of the muscles of the pharyngeal sphincter. This is a normal healthy physiological mechanism, preventing foreign objects from entering the pharynx, larynx or trachea. Although gagging is cited as a normal protective reflex, problems have emerged with some patients suffering from a hypersensitive response whilst undergoing basic dental treatment. This paper discusses the problem and describes six case reports in which propofol was used to help overcome patient difficulties.         Patient referrals to special needs dental units in Tasmania, Australia   M A W T Lim and G L Borromeo       Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Australia           ABSTRACT   Even though Special Needs Dentistry has now been recognised as a dental specialty in Australia for more than a decade little is known about the nature of referrals to units dedicated to treating patients with special needs.   Aims and Objectives: To determine the types of patients referred to special needs dental units staffed by general dentists and the reason(s) for these referrals.   Methodology: Referrals for all patient appointments at Special Care Dental Units in the state of Tasmania during August 2015 were reviewed.   Results: Most referrals were from medical practitioners for the management of oral implications of medical conditions or medications. Hospital referrals originated mainly from oncology and geriatric evaluation and management units. Patients had an average of 3 medical conditions. Referrals relating to medications were generally related to the use of Bisphosphonates and Denosumab, and for chemotherapy patients.   Conclusions: This study provides details of the types of patients referred to special needs dental units. In particular, it provides insight into the awareness of the oral implications of medical conditions and medications on oral health and dental treatments amongst the medical profession and thus the importance of interactions between oral health professionals and other health professionals. Furthermore, the data stimulates discussion about the potential influence of clinic location and workforce on patient referrals.     The oral health status of Special Olympics athletes in Trinidad and Tobago: thirteen years later       Hema Singh DDS MPH, Rahul Naidu BDS PhD, Christina Royer DDS and Ashley Meighan BSc DDS       The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago           ABSTRACT   Aim and Objective: To assess the oral health status of Special Olympics athletes in Trinidad and Tobago in 2017 and compare the results of this study against the previous data collected in 2004 and with recent data from Special Olympic athletes worldwide. Methodology: A convenience sample of athletes who participated in the Special Olympics Special Smiles Healthy Athletes screening programme. The standardised Special Olympics screening form was used for the oral health assessment of each athlete. Results: 120 athletes participated. The mean age of participants was 24.1 years with a range of 5–80 years; 70.8% were male and 9.2% reported having dental pain. The prevalence of untreated decay was higher in 2017 than in 2004 (69.2% vs 43.7%), and gingival signs were present in 72.5% of the athletes in 2017 compared to 33.7% in 2014. There was an increase in participants with filled teeth (14.2% vs 9%) but a decrease in sealed teeth in 2017 (0.8% vs 2.9%). Urgent treatment need was found in 32.5% of the athletes. In comparison to Special Olympics athletes worldwide, the findings from Trinidad and Tobago were similar to those from developing countries in the Far-east and Eastern Europe.   Conclusion: The oral health status of Special Olympics athletes in Trinidad and Tobago suggests an urgent need to develop oral health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities and improve their access to oral healthcare.     Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and its implications for dental treatment (FOP): A case report       J Doughty1,2, C Steel1, P Thakrar1 and N Kumar1,2       1.                  University College London Hospitals. 2.University College London       Abstract   Aims: This case report discusses the general and dental manifestations of Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and details the dental management considerations particular to this case.   Method: A case report methodology was employed to describe the clinical encounter of a patient with FOP.   Case summary: FOP is an extremely rare hereditary disorder characterised by progressive ossification of the tendons, ligaments, fasciae and striated muscles. The patient’s primary oral complaint was a complete inability to separate the upper and lower jaws, which were “locked” into position. At the age of twenty he underwent extraction of the lower right third molar, which led to progressive ossification and subsequent fixation of the jaws. The patient presented with pain and dental infection over multiple appointments. Treatment planning involved a multi-professional approach including oral and maxillofacial surgery, oral surgery and special care dentistry teams. A novel approach using cone beam CT to identify the location and extent of carious lesions was used. Risk assessment was critical as dental extractions posed a risk of uncontrolled heterotrophic bone formation; the provision of dental restorations posed the risk of inadequate visualisation / placement and trauma to the oral tissues when retracting.   Conclusions: This case poses both a clinical and ethical dilemma. After weighing the potential risks and benefits of dental treatment, there was no clear answer to this case – the plan is for the multi-disciplinary team to provide high quality preventative care and monitor the patient closely, with surgical intervention dictated by pain / infection frequency and any further dental deterioration.          

JDOH - Volume 18 Number 2 (March 2017)

JDOH - Volume 18 Number 2 (March 2017)  Editorial Audit of the use of clinical holding at Birmingham Community Healthcare Special Care Dental Service Patient and carer involvement in evaluating a toothbrushing programme for children and young people with neurological motor impairment The development of a mouthcare information leaflet for carers of older people Continuing Professional Development Programme Diary Dates 2017 2018 Some personal musings on Special Care Dentistry   In my experience a standard interview question used to be - ‘what are the most satisfying parts of your work’? Although my last experience was a number of years ago, I recall my reply following the usual acceptable responses were the immortal words of Hannibal Smith (George Peppard) at the end of the 1980’s TV series The A Team- “I love it when a plan comes together”. (Fox News, 2006).   Our realm of dentistry is principally not about the focus of dental treatment, but is considerably more about the emphasis of dealing with people. This is always interesting and often challenging. Inevitably, one of the most important qualities we need in our job, as indeed in all aspects of life, is communication. Planning, organisation and teamwork is essential and when it all comes together, it is very satisfying.   We should strive to provide a standard of treatment that is equitable to those people who do not have a disability. This is often very difficult and in the end, we simply have to do the best we can. We are not miracle workers and it is arrogant to think we can be. Clinical pragmatism can be a valuable approach; however, there is not universal agreement on its interpretation. This is particularly so in a world where the processes of commissioning and policy do not always equate with work at the coalface.   We seem to live in a time of increasing caution with the possible result that we can become more and more risk averse. Special Care Dentistry is a discipline that does not necessarily comply with standard protocols and requires flexibility and carefully managed risk. We should be prepared to accept that on occasion we have to take a step in the dark and consider taking an unpredictable risk. I used to work with a hugely experienced and skilled anaesthetist and infrequently, would discuss a case with complex medical and difficult management problems. After a pause, she would invariably say- “well Graham somebody has to treat this patient and it looks like us, so let’s get on with it.” She was definitely a good-doer.   It would be interesting to examine how and why our colleagues chose the path of Special Care Dentistry. I became interested following a move from Public Health. Initially, I experienced the joys of working in a dental caravan visiting schools for children with severe disability back in 1976. I feel it is important that the initial introduction to working with people with disability in dentistry is well supported. This was not the case in earlier years, when the approach of ‘just get on with it’ was the norm. My current position involves working with adults with profound complex neurodisability at the Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability Putney in London and in my opinion, working with this group of patients is particularly challenging (Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability). Medically, many patients have experienced a traumatic episode which resulted in severe brain injury. Additionally, they have complex medical conditions and are often very unwell. Dentally, these patients are like any other, presenting with a range of problems varying from requiring a full clearance to managing failing, complex restorative dentistry. Providing their treatment can be very tricky, due to limited oral access and difficult management. I cannot emphasise enough the value of intravenous conscious sedation in providing good dentistry. Planning for treatment is a hard one and communicating with their relatives/carers is often both humbling and difficult. Understandably, they may be in a state of shock because of the immediate nature of the event that has caused such a sudden change in their loved one. Many of the patients I treat have a very low level of consciousness with no obvious communication and very limited ability to respond. Commonly, their relatives/carers travel considerable distances every day to simply sit and be there to provide comfort. In addition, the prospect of improvement may be limited, such that the carers experience a grieving process that may go on for years and years. I find the capacity for kindness in the human creature can be overwhelming. In terms of dentistry, quite rightly patients’ loved ones want the very best treatment and may have high and unrealistic expectations for the type of care they feel is acceptable. In these circumstances empathetic, but realistic communication is so important.   Although working with young colleagues in a teaching and learning capacity can be quite demanding, it also provides great fun and much satisfaction. I do not subscribe to the older school of teaching that felt the best approach was first to break the student down and then build them up. On more than one occasion, my thoughts had been, ‘Stop, stop, stop take your forceps away from that tooth NOW it’s the wrong one’. I found, however, the ‘I wonder if I can make a slight suggestion’ approach created less panic and was more educationally creative, rather than damaging their confidence. There is however, one shortcoming in the enthusiasm of the youngsters entering our specialty and this is research; and I can understand why. Research is not an interest to everyone. It is however a very rewarding and essential pastime, as we all know progression in all aspects of clinical care needs to be supported by evidence. Research however can be challenging. Firstly, you have to hit on an idea, review the past literature, obtain ethical and institutional approval (ethics can be daunting) apply for funding, then do the work, write up and seek publication. What a lot of hurdles, with each one being very taxing.   Invariably, one of the first experiences of the research process is part of a formal academic training. This tends to be accompanied by the additional worry of exams and the research part of the training can be considered mainly as a stressful and necessary task. It’s no wonder that I have heard it said at the end of the training process ‘I never want to do any type of research ever again’. However, it is so important to have an enquiring approach to our work. This quality is common to clinicians, although taking it that step further is hard. Research is so much better coming from the angle of interested enquiry i.e. ‘I wonder what’s going on here?’ rather than a necessary exercise as part of a training programme. This can be demoralising and extinguish the spark and fire of genuine interest and enquiry. In the end, it all comes down to providing the protected time and financial support for research especially in newer specialty areas. The priority of where funding goes seems to leave some areas of research at the end of the queue, something our society needs to seriously consider.   What now of the future? Hats off and huge congratulations to our ‘grandparents’ who secured Special Care Dentistry as a specialty. Special Care Dentistry is predominantly a primary care community speciality and needs to be focused in the community; although links with academic centres and teaching hospitals are essential, as their expertise, research, and teaching provide substantial support and credibility to the specialty. This is particularly so since research, teaching and training must be the key areas of focus for the future. Academic teaching hospitals and universities need to seriously accept this responsibility and ensure that adequate provision is available in the undergraduate curriculum and opportunity for post graduate training in Special Care Dentistry. We need to fight for the continuing evolvement of Special Care Dentistry; it is a continuing and worthwhile battle -good luck to all.     Graham Manley BDS DDPH(RCS-Eng) MSc PhD FDS(RCS-Eng)     Fox News. www.foxnews.com/story/2006/11/28/tv-land-lists-100-greatest-tv-catchphrases.   Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability. https://www.rhn.org.uk/what-makes-us-special/services/dentistry     The development of a mouthcare information leaflet for carers of older people   R Fitzpatrick1 and V Jones2   1Community Dental Officer, 2Consultant in Special Care Dentistry Aneurin Bevan University Health Board     Abstract   Aim: To design a written information leaflet to support carers when providing mouthcare for older people. Method: A literature search to identify existing information leaflets, recommendations on producing written healthcare information and current evidence based oral healthcare. Searches were carried out using the key words: carer, oral health, elderly, care homes, education, training and oral health promotion plus denture cleaning, tooth brushing, diet supplements and dry mouth. A draft leaflet was then produced and assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level, Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) calculator, the Ensuring Quality Information for Patients tool (EQIP) and the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). The leaflet was peer reviewed by colleagues within Community Dental Service, Oral Health Promotion team and a Public Health Practitioner. It was further evaluated by carers using a structured questionnaire. Results: The leaflet scored well with regards to its readability and EQIP scores and could be easily understood by most carers. There were 33 respondents to the evaluation questionnaire, of which 85% felt that the leaflet was good to very good and 60% said it increased their knowledge and confidence when providing mouth care. Conclusion: A high quality, simple information leaflet was produced that supported carers when providing mouth care for older people.     Audit of the use of clinical holding at Birmingham Community Healthcare Special Care Dental Service   R Willis   Senior Dental Officer, Birmingham Community Health Care NHS Foundation Trust   Abstract:   Aim and objectives: To evaluate the use of clinical holding within one Special Care Dental Team against the British Society of Disability and Oral Health 2009 Clinical Holding Guidelines and the Department of Health 2014 publication, Positive and Proactive Care. Methodology: Data were collected over an eight-week period for patients where clinical holding had been used to facilitate care. Results: Forty-six patients were identified as receiving clinical holding during the audit period with 70 separate clinical holds used. Low level arm restrictions were used in 40% (n=28) of holds with medium or high level arm restrictions used in 36% (n=25). The main justification given for the use of clinical holding was the facilitation of treatment (96%, n=67). The majority of holds were used to facilitate examination (31%, n=22) or intravenous access (31%, n=22). The intervention was abandoned for 3% (n=2) of holds. The use of clinical holding was planned at a prior appointment for 60% (n=42) of holds. Non-dental staff were used in 44% (n=31) of holds. Conclusions: The use of clinical holding within the service was in line with current guidance and was effective in the facilitation of care for people whose behaviour limited their ability to receive care. The audit results suggest improvements are required in advanced planning and documentation of consent. Future work should focus on the use of non-dental staff in clinical holding, post clinical holding debriefs and post incident reviews.   Patient and carer involvement in evaluating a toothbrushing programme for children and young people with neurological motor impairment   R Emanuel1, E Ray-Chaudhuri2, J Parry3, L Borthwick4, D Sellers5 and S Dobson6   1Consultant in Special Care Dentistry, 2Specialty Registrar in Paediatric Dentistry, 3Consultant in Paediatric Dentistry, 4Senior Dental Nurse, 5Senior Specialist Speech and Language Therapist/Research Fellow, 6Lead Nurse; Chailey Clinical Services, East Sussex, UK   ABSTRACT   Background: People with cerebral palsy (CP) can have difficulty with eating and drinking safely and efficiently. A toothbrushing regime which includes routine use of suction and non-foaming toothpastes may be beneficial to reduce foam, debris and aspiration risk during brushing. This project sought to obtain feedback from children and young people with severe motor impairment, their parents or guardians and care staff of a toothbrushing programme, which introduced the use of nonfoaming paste and suction. Method: Two participant groups were invited to contribute to evaluate a toothbrushing programme based on non-foaming toothpaste and suction for children and young people with cerebral palsy who are unable to eat and drink safely. The groups were: Care staff involved in providing daily oral care to children and young people with CP, and twelve children and young people with CP who are unable to eat or drink safely and who use community dental services based at the specialist centre for children and young adults with neurological and motor impairment. Results: Lack of co-operative motor ability was identified by care staff as the greatest obstacle to thorough oral hygiene practice for children and young people with neurological motor impairment. Before the service evaluation, over 66% of staff thought that use of non-foaming toothpaste and suction would be useful. Some staff were concerned that suction use may be unpleasant for some children with sensory oral issues. A patient/carer oral hygiene education programme, using non-foaming toothpaste and suction, resulted in positive feedback from the carers or family members providing oral hygiene.    

JDOH - Volume 18 Number 1 (June 2017)

Journal of Disability and Oral Health Volume 18 Number 1 June 2017   Contents   Editorial   Deep Brain Stimulation literature review of the unseen challenges to optimal dentistry G X D Lim   Dental students attitudes towards understanding of health disability and disease in dental patients in Wales UK a foundation for special care dentistry H E Redford and P A Atkin   Oral health status and treatment needs of school children undergoing special education integrated programme in Malaysia a pilot study J John, S A Mani, V K Joshi, L Y Kuan, H W Lim, S LWan-Lin, L A Shoaib and R A Omar   Special Care Dentistry in Saudi Arabia development as a dental speciality an opinion paper Hassan Abed   Diary Dates 2017 2018 Obituary Professor Crispian Scully Research grants advisory Continuing Professional Development Programme Editorial   Looking back – the journey towards Special Care Dentistry   Today, Special Care Dentistry (SCD) sits proudly alongside other dental specialties in the UK as in other countries across the world. Whilst it is one of the newest (12th), and most ‘fresh-faced’ dental specialty in the UK, there is a long history to how it came to fruition, through the vision and efforts of many dentists, and with the engagement, input and involvement of people with a disability.   Its raison d’être is to promote good oral health and function for people with a disability, together with others who have an important role alongside the dental team. Seventeen years ago - a new millennium - the year 2000, was significant in many ways. I recall seeing-in the new century on the Malvern Hills, with crystal-clear starlit skies – joined by many others, who, like me, were thinking of what the future would bring.   For Special Care Dentistry, that year was a turning point – The Joint Advisory Committee for Special Care Dentistry (JACSCD) was established as a freestanding committee, to ‘promote and oversee the introduction of training programmes, the development of curricula and training standards and formative assessment processes’ (Woof, 2000; Fiske, 2006).   ‘A case of need – a proposal for a Specialty in Special Care Dentistry’ (JACSCD; 2003a) and, ‘Training in Special Care Dentistry’ were both published in 2003 (JACSCD; 2003b). Two years later, the General Dental Council approved in principle the establishment of a Specialty of SCD.   Yet, in reality, it was the ‘end of the beginning’; it is important to understand that the speciality grew out of a complex interaction and vision of many stakeholders, including the Royal Colleges, British Society for Disability and Oral Health, the British Dental Association, British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry, the Royal Colleges, lay people, and those with a disability. The journey towards the speciality was long and sometimes difficult, but it was vitally important for those individuals with a disability who were supported by promoting good oral health and function. It was a time of great change and a challenge for the many organisations and individuals who had shared values, but where care pathways and processes sometimes differed. The debate lasted many years, but the specialty of Special Care Dentistry is now on course providing consultant and specialist led services, training and importantly, education to future generations of dental team members at undergraduate and post-graduate level.   A future paper in the Journal of Disability and Oral Heath will provide further detail of the ‘The Journey’ to establishing the specialty both as a historical record and with the hope others will find the resilience to promote and advocate for similar developments in their countries.   References   Woof M. Specialisation in Special Care Dentistry - where from, where now, where to? J Disability Oral Health 2000; 1: 34-38.   Fiske J. Special Care Dentistry (Editorial). Br Dent J 2006 200: 61.   Joint Advisory Committee for Special Care Dentistry. A Case of Need – a proposal for a Specialty in Special Care Dentistry. London: JACSCD; 2003a.   Joint Advisory Committee for Special Care Dentistry. Training in Special Care Dentistry. London: JACSCD; 2003b.                                                                                                                 Marcus Woof Hon. Senior Lecturer, Disability Studies University of Birmingham, School of Dentistry.       Deep Brain Stimulation: literature review of the unseen challenges to optimal dentistry   G X D Lim MSc   Nanyang Polytechnic (Adjunct Lecturer), Geriatrics and Special Care Dental Centre NDCS (Visiting Clinician), Eastman Dental Institute (MSc Graduate)   Abstract   Deep brain stimulation is an implantable electrical generator increasingly used nowadays for movement or neuropsychological conditions. It was reported to cause significant morbidity and mortality when used with various dental devices. AIMS: This literature review seeks to unveil hazards, analyse current guidelines and practices, and highlight the controversies practitioners face when caring for individuals with deep brain stimulation. METHODOLOGY: Cochrane database, Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed searches were executed using MeSH terms “deep brain stimulation” AND “dentist*”. An open (basic) search for the databases was also done. Information from practice recommendations of the Parkinson’s Society UK, American Parkinson’s Disease Association, National Parkinson Foundation US, European Parkinson’s Disease Society, Parkinson’s Australia, FDA (US), and MEDSCAPE were also analysed for insights regarding deep brain stimulation and dentistry. RESULTS: A total of 1,778 articles were found and screened, of which 15 were reviewed in full text and 10 were deemed relevant for qualitative synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Previous literature suggested diathermy use and post-treatment infections are the main concerns with deep brain stimulation. A deeper understanding of the safety concerns involving other dental procedures (including electrocautery, lasers, lithotripsy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation therapy, and ultrasound) with deep brain stimulation use is required. In addition, antibiotic prophylaxis recommendations differ internationally. There are also concerns regarding the timing of dental interventions after deep brain stimulation and various considerations during general anaesthesia. This article arranges and summarises these concerns for the perusal of all dental practitioners.         Dental students’ attitudes towards understanding of health, disability and disease in dental patients in Wales, UK: a foundation for special care dentistry   H E Redford1 and P A Atkin2   1General Dental Practitioner, Swansea, 2Consultant/Hon. Senior Lecturer, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University     Abstract   Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed to explore ideas relating to the wider medical knowledge and attitudes towards understanding of human health, disability and disease in dentistry amongst dental undergraduate students in different stages of the BDS programme at School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Wales. Methods: A questionnaire relating to students’ attitudes, perceptions and knowledge concerning human health, disability and disease was distributed to first, third and final year students. The questionnaire used Likert scales to allow students to easily rate their attitudes on this topic. Results: Most students (99%) perceived human disease/clinical medical sciences for dentistry teaching to be relevant to dentistry. Students in their final year perceived themselves to be the most confident with their knowledge of human disease and their ability to use their knowledge when treating patients, compared to third and first year students. The majority of dental students surveyed perceived that dental patients would expect their dentist to have good understanding of their problems with heath, disability and disease and how these problems may impact on treatment choices (81%), but, that patients did not recognise that dental students learned about human health and disease (44%). Conclusions: The results indicate that dental students recognise that human diseases/clinical medical sciences teaching in dentistry are an essential component of undergraduate curriculum. The teaching provides students with increased knowledge of this topic area along with confidence in using this knowledge whilst treating patients. Students feel that as a dentist, they should have a good understanding of medical problems, disability and disease and how this impacts on treatment and also believe this is what patients expect. A sound understanding of patients’ medical history is key to safe practice, and identifying those patients who may need special consideration when planning dental treatments. The undergraduate human diseases/clinical medical sciences teaching in dentistry, which is later built upon with undergraduate teaching in Special Care Dentistry and sedation provides a good foundation for future safe clinical practice for all patients, whatever their special needs may be.     Oral health status and treatment needs of school children undergoing special education integrated programme in Malaysia – a pilot study   J John1, S A Mani2, V K Joshi1, L Y Kuan3, H W Lim3, S LWan-Lin3, L A Shoaib2 and R A Omar1   1Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry; 2Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry; 3Faculty of Dentistry: University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur   AbstracT Aim and objective. This pilot study aimed to assess oral health status and treatment needs among children with special needs (CWSN) in a Special Education Integrated Programme school in Malaysia, to determine the feasibility of verifying a baseline prior to conducting an intervention programme. Methodology. A total of 82 CWSN with different types of learning disabilities aged 6-12 years old, who complied with the criteria, participated in this study. Data were collected by clinical examination and analysed using SPSS 20.0 system. Results. Among the respondents, 62% had one or more decayed teeth, 80% did not have any restorations in their oral cavity and 70% had between moderate to severe plaque index score. Almost all the CWSN required oral hygiene education while more than half required oral prophylaxis and restorative treatment. Only 21% required extraction and 12% were advised to undergo orthodontic treatment. 7.3% of CWSN presented with tooth anomalies. More than a third had either Class I or Class II incisor relationship respectively and two-thirds presented with Class I facial profile. 13% of CWSN had undesirable oral habits. Conclusion. CWSN who participated in this pilot study had satisfactory oral health status, however, they lacked adequate oral hygiene awareness and required further reinforcement.     Special Care Dentistry in Saudi Arabia: development as a dental specialty - an opinion paper   Hassan Abed BDS MSc Candidate   Department of Basic and Clinical Oral Sciences, Umm Alqura University, Faculty of Dentistry, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Department of Sedation and Special Care Dentistry, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital (GSTT) National Health Services (NHS) Trust, King’s College London, United     Abstract Special Care Dentistry (SCD) is an unrecognised speciality in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it is not currently taught as a major part of undergraduate or postgraduate dental curricular. The number of people with special needs is expected to increase based on the presence of many risk factors. For instance, the government is facing a rising burden of road traffic injuries as a result of rapid changes in behaviours. Therefore, more survivors are expected who might live using wheelchairs or with permanent physical impairments. Additionally, the elderly population of Saudi Arabia is expected to grow from 1 million in 2000 to 7.7 million in 2050. Improvements in paediatric health care in Saudi Arabia are expected to increase the number of people living with chronic or debilitating medical conditions. Thereby, dental care providers must anticipate patients with chronic medical conditions and/or wheelchair users in their daily practice. Implementation of SCD in the undergraduate and postgraduate dental programmes in Saudi dental universities will help oral health care providers to manage these patients and involve them in the health care pathway.    

Volume 14 Number 2

June 2013

Editorial Education in Special Care Dentistry too exclusive

Guidance on the core content of an Undergraduate Curriculum in Special Care Dentistry
A Dougall and S Thompson

Evaluation of a pilot programme for increasing dental clinicians knowledge and confidence in treating children and adolescents with disabilities
J M Martin, T S Arnold-Smith, J A Butcher, M S Hopcraft and H Calache

Investigation into the cancer and radiation history of a cohort of patients with osteoradionecrosis following dental extractions in irradiated areas
J R E Pepper, C C Gaffney, S J Oliver, A J Cronin and P J Bryson

NICE guidelines antibiotic prophylaxis
K McKenna and B H Mullally

The impact of congenital alkaline phosphatase deficiency on oral health condition a literature review
A Dziedzic

Diary Dates 

Editorial

Education in Special Care Dentistry- too exclusive?

This issue of the JDOH highlights publications of common interest in a sister journal on the design of undergraduate curricula in Special Care Dentistry (SCD). The European literature is replete with educationalists exhorting providers of curricula to incorporate new approaches to learning, complete with model syllabi and learning outcomes. This is especially laudable in the area of SCD where, largely anecdotal, evidence exists to indicate that populations that come within the remit off SCD are largely underserved.

These recent publications have captured the essential components of what teachers in SCD feel should be included in an undergraduate curriculum in the specialty, acknowledging by reference to the ICF model (Faulks et al., 2013) that not everyone traditionally labelled as ‘special needs’ will require such targeted oral health services.

The authors of the curriculum document are at pains to point out that those aspiring to embed such curricula into their own dental school should customise the content for their students and not necessarily expect to incorporate every element of the guidelines into their own curricula. For this is, in reality, work in progress; and that gives those who now anticipate using these guidelines the opportunity to move this agenda on.

As a model for innovation, curriculum designers must now take the opportunity that this presents and do important things: develop these curricula for their own situation and involve three groups of important stakeholders not included in the initial development work. That is to say, patients, students and allied healthcare professionals.

Proponents of the specialty of Special Care Dentistry have always emphasised that SCD is all about team work and so it is essential that the three stakeholder groups listed above are, at the very least, part of an implementation plan for a curriculum. Without the input of these groups, the new programme will not be as successful as it might otherwise be and staff aiming to expand the curriculum in this important area will be thwarted in their efforts. 

Urgent consideration now needs to be given to developing, in parallel, curricula in SCD for allied oral healthcare workers. Otherwise this is a missed opportunity. Those schools planning to follow these guidelines have the potential to be inclusive so that delivery of education, training and patient care can be seamless (General Dental Council, 2009).

The other essential element missing thus far is programme evaluation. Without this we will lose a valuable opportunity to learn from implementation and to constantly evolve curricula to meet the undoubted changing needs of a diverse population. Not to incorporate this important element into such programmes is to do a disservice to those we purport to serve, patients and students.

Professor June Nunn
Emeritus Editor, JDOH




Guidance on the core content of an Undergraduate Curriculum in Special Care Dentistry

Dr Alison Dougall, Dublin Dental University Dental Hospital, Trinity College Dublin 
Dr Shelagh Thompson, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University 

Graduates in Dentistry are increasingly likely to see a significant number of patients with special health care needs in the course of their practising lives (Faulks et al., 2012). Their confidence and willingness to provide care for this diverse group of patients is closely correlated to the quality and content of their undergraduate education in Special Care Dentistry (SCD) (Sherman and Anderson, 2010; Chavez et al., 2011).

In response to requests from educators worldwide, the International Association for Disability and Oral Health (iADH) has initiated the development of undergraduate curriculum guidance in SCD through a consensus process involving leading experts in SCD from 32 countries (Dougall et al. 2013a). The iADH curriculum is defined in statements of learning outcomes and describes learning and teaching methods, assessment and feedback designed to provide undergraduates with the knowledge, skills and attitudes desirable in SCD. The final curriculum document is available for download from the website of the International Association of Disability and Oral Health www.iadh.org

Three scientific articles have been published in the European Journal of Dental Education (EJDE) over the last year, which document the context and the methodological approach to the curriculum process. The first publication, by Faulks et al. (2012), explores education in SCD as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health for people with disabilities. The second publication by Dougall et al. (2012), details the expert Delphi Process used to produce the iADH consensus document, the recommendations from which are described in the final publication (Dougall et al. 2013b), where the suggested curriculum is mapped across all domains of an undergraduate curriculum.

The EJDE has very kindly agreed to the abstracts being shared with the JDOH readers via this article. The abstracts have been reprinted with the permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Professor Michael Manogue, Editor of the EJDE has recommended free access to the selected papers to allow the iADH membership and the wider community access to these publications.

References

Chavez EM, Subar PE, Miles J, Wong A, Labarre EE, Glassman P. Perceptions of predoctoral dental education and practice patterns in special care dentistry. J Dent Educ 2011; 75: 726-732. 
Dougall A, Pani SC, Thompson S, Faulks D, Romer M, Nunn J. Developing an undergraduate curriculum in Special Care Dentistry-by consensus. Eur J Dent Educ 2013a 17: 46-56. 
Dougall A, Thompson S, Faulks D, Ting G, Nunn J. Guidance for the core content of a Curriculum in Special Care Dentistry at the undergraduate level Eur J Dent Educ 2013b; DOI: 10.1111/eje.12054. 
Faulks D, Freedman L, Thompson S, Sagheri D, Dougall A. The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health. Eur J Dent Educ 2012; 16: 195-201. 
Gordon F, Morgan M, Thompson S. A survey of the quality and quantity of Special Care Dentistry Teaching, including Gerodontology, in Dental Schools of the United Kingdom and Ireland. J Disab Oral Health 2009 10: 3-10.
Sherman CM, Anderson RD. Special needs education in Canadian dental school curriculum: is there enough? J Can Dent Assoc 2010; 76: a11.

Online Abstracts in European Journal of Dental Education
The abstracts have been reprinted with the permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health
Faulks D, Freedman L, Thompson S, Sagheri D and Dougall A. The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health. Eur J Dent Educ 2012; 16: 195–201. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2012.00736.x
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0579.2012.00736.x/full

Abstract 
People with disability are subject to inequality in oral health both in terms of prevalence of disease and unmet healthcare needs. Over 18% of the global population is living with moderate to severe functional problems related to disability, and a large proportion of these persons will require Special Care Dentistry at some point in their lifetime. It is estimated that 90% of people requiring Special Care Dentistry should be able to access treatment in a local, primary care setting. Provision of such primary care is only possible through the education and training of dentists. The literature suggests that it is vital for the dental team to develop the necessary skills and gain experience treating people with special needs in order to ensure access to the provision of oral health care. Education in Special Care Dentistry worldwide might be improved by the development of a recognised academic and clinical discipline and by providing international curricula guidelines based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, WHO). This article aims to discuss the role and value of promoting and harmonising education in Special Care Dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

 

Developing a dental undergraduate curriculum in Special Care Dentistry-by consensus 
Dougall A, Pani SC, Thompson S, Faulks D, Romer M and Nunn J. Developing an undergraduate curriculum in Special Care Dentistry – by consensus. Eur J Dent Educ 2013; 17: 46–56. doi: 10.1111/eje.12011
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/eje.12011/full

Abstract
It has been reported that health care providers often lack the skills set to provide care for people with disabilities, leading to inequalities in health and reduced access to healthcare. Newly graduating dentists are likely to see a significant number of patients with special health care needs in the course of their practicing lives, however, there is evidence of national and international variation in the availability and of education and training at the undergraduate level in this important, emerging area. The quality and content of under-graduate education in Special Care Dentistry has been shown to correlate with students’ confidence, and their expressed willingness, towards providing care for patients with special healthcare needs in their future practice. 
The aim of this study was to use information from a three-round Delphi process, continued into a face to face meeting, in order to establish consensus on what constitutes the essential core knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a newly qualified dentist, so that they are able to deliver patient care to diverse populations following graduation. A high level of agreement was established amongst an international panel of experts from 30 countries. The final core items identified by the panel showed a paradigm shift away from the traditional emphasis on medical diagnosis within a curriculum towards an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) with patient-centred treatment planning for people with disabilities and special health care needs according to function or environment. Many of the core skills identified by the panel are transferable across a curriculum, and should encourage a person-centred approach to treatment planning based on the function, needs and wishes of the patient rather than their specific diagnosis.

Guidance for the core content of a Curriculum in Special Care Dentistry at the undergraduate level.
Dougall A, Thompson SA, Faulks D, Ting G and Nunn J. Guidance for the core content of a Curriculum in Special Care Dentistry at the undergraduate level. Eur J Dent Educ 2013; doi: 10.1111/eje.12054
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/eje.12054/full

Abstract
Given the rapidly changing demography of populations worldwide, dental professionals of the future need to be able to meet the challenge posed by the evolving landscape in health care needs. Leading institutions are now embedding teaching and learning in special care dentistry (SCD) within their curricula, to provide students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes to meet the oral health needs of vulnerable groups within their communities. The International Association for Disability and Oral Health (iADH) has initiated the development of undergraduate curriculum guidance in SCD through a consensus process. The curriculum in SCD is defined in statements of learning outcomes with many of the skills being transferable across the undergraduate course. This curriculum includes examples of teaching and assessment, designed to enhance critical thinking in relation to SCD and to promote positive attitudes towards disability and diversity. The learning outcomes are designed to be readily adapted to conform to the generic profiles and competencies, already identified in undergraduate frameworks by global educational associations, as well as meeting the requirements of professional regulatory bodies worldwide. Suggestions for teaching and learning are not intended to be prescriptive; rather, they act as a signpost to possible routes to student learning. Ideally, this will require that students have a sufficiently diverse patient case mix during their undergraduate studies, to achieve the required levels of confidence and competence by the time they graduate. Clinical care competencies in SCD emphasise the need for learners to broaden their theoretical knowledge and understanding through practical experience in providing care for people with special health care needs. It is crucial to the development of equitable dental services for all members of a community, that these learning outcomes are embedded into evolving curricula but most importantly, that they are evaluated and refined in a dynamic way with shared learning for all teachers.



Evaluation of a pilot programmefor increasing dental clinicians’ knowledge and confidence in treating children and adolescents with disabilities

J M Martin1, T S Arnold-Smith2, J A Butcher3, M S Hopcraft4 and H Calache5

1Research Manager, 2Data Administrator, 3CPD Coordinator, 5Director, Clinical Leadership, Education and Research; Dental Health Services Victoria, Australia. 4Director of Clinical Education, 5Adjunct Research Fellow; Melbourne Dental School, University of Melbourne, Australia. 5Adjunct Professor LaTrobe University, Australia.

Abstract 
Aim and objectives: In 2011, Dental Health Services Victoria (DHSV) identified a need to increase capacity within the public dental sector to treat and manage oral health in children and adolescents with special needs. Prior to the study, there were two dentists experienced in special needs dentistry in the Victorian public sector, who were dedicated to the provision of dental services to children and adolescents attending special and special developmental schools. Studies have shown that children in these schools are much more likely to have poorer oral health than children without disabilities. 
Methodology: Due to unmet demand, DHSV developed and delivered a six day educational programme to public sector dental clinicians in 2011. Disabilities covered in the educational programme included intellectual, physical and sensory disabilities. The aim of the programme was to increase the confidence of dentists and dental therapists to provide dental services to children and adolescents attending special schools. Evaluation was undertaken immediately on completion of the programme and at three months post-course completion. 
Results: Fourteen clinicians undertook the educational programme, and reported increases in their knowledge and confidence in treating and referring children and adolescents with special needs. Minor changes to the programme would further enhance its effectiveness. Conclusion: Educational programmes such as this have the potential to increase the clinical care provided to patients with special needs.



Investigation into the cancer and radiation history of a cohort of patients with osteoradionecrosis following dental extractions in irradiated areas

J R E Pepper1, C C Gaffney2, S J Oliver3, A J Cronin4 and P J Bryson5

1Dental Officer, Department of Special Care Dentistry, Buryfields Clinic, Guildford; 2Consultant Clinical Oncologist (retired), Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff; 3Clinical Senior Lecturer / Consultant in Acute and Special Care Dentistry, Dental Education Unit, Learning and Scholarship Division, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff; 4Consultant Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Oral and Maxillofacial Department, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff; 5Medical Director of Diving Sciences, Foresterhill Health & Research Complex, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen.

Abstract

Aim and Objectives: To investigate the cancer and radiation history of patients referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to treat osteoradionecrosis (ORN) associated with dental extractions in irradiated fields, in order to determine risk factors and thus potential methods of prevention.
Method: Data were collected from 51 patients referred for HBOT to treat ORN related to dental extractions in irradiated areas. Data collected included gender, age, cancer and radiotherapy details, details of extractions and of ORN.
Results: Previous advanced-stage tumours, time elapsed since radiotherapy, and mandibular extractions were all associated with the development of ORN. 50% (of the 36 patients from whom radiation dosage data were available) had received a total radiation dose of or lower than the 55 Gy threshold, which is generally considered to be required for ORN to occur.
Conclusions: The authors recommend that dentists routinely enquire about patients’ head and neck radiation history (no matter how long ago the radiotherapy was received). If a patient has received head and neck radiotherapy, particular caution should be taken if the teeth requiring extraction are mandibular. Prior to extraction, information should ideally be sought from the treating oncologist regarding the risk of ORN. A total radiation dose of < 55 Gy should not be regarded as low risk, because the risk of developing ORN cannot be determined by total radiotherapy dose alone.



NICE guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: An audit of patients understanding of the guidelines, and the implications for dental practitioners

Kathryn McKenna1 BDS MFDSRCS and Brian H Mullally2 BDS MDS FDSRCPS PhD

1Specialty Dentist in Restorative Dentistry and 2Consultant in Restorative Dentistry, School of Clinical Dentistry, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Abstract

In March 2008 the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published a review into antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) to prevent bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) stating that AP was no longer required in the UK. This was met with some controversy, particularly amongst cardiologists, but relatively little is documented on patients’ perspective, many of whom have a long history of taking AP for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE).

Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this audit was to assess patients’ attitudes and understanding about the change in guidelines, and how this, in turn might influence how dentists treat these patients.

Methodology: This questionnaire based audit was carried out in the School of Clinical Dentistry, Belfast. Data were collected over a 6 month period in 2011. 42 questionnaires were audited.

Results: 59% of patients were concerned about the change in guidelines and 22% wanted clarification from their cardiologist. Nearly a third of patients were allergic to an antibiotic. 53% of patients were not aware of the signs and symptoms of IE, and 14% weren’t sure.

Conclusions: It is important that we do not, and do not let patients, become complacent about the level of risk of IE. Our audit suggests patients are not aware of the signs and symptoms of IE and need to be made aware of these. Patients feel concerned about the cessation of AP, and should be counselled on the benefits and risks of antibiotics with a thorough explanation of why AP is no longer recommended.



The impact of congenital alkaline phosphatase deficiency on oral health condition: a literature review

Arkadiusz Dziedzic

Specialist in Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of Silesia, Bytom, Poland

Abstract

Deficiency of alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) is linked to an inherited disorder described as hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is associated with disturbances in bone and tooth mineralisation, resulting in various degrees of skeletal and dental malformations. The disease occurs due to mutations in the alkaline phosphatase gene which regulates the development of specific tissue. There is a remarkable heterogeneity in symptom occurrence depending on age at initial onset of disease, ranging from death in utero to relatively simple problems with dentition in adult life. Characteristic dental symptoms of HPP include premature loss of deciduous teeth, premature exfoliation of fully rooted permanent teeth, and alveolar bone loss. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the various influences of low level of ALP with special reference to the dental aspects of the condition, based on an up-to-date review of the available systematic research and literature. Unexplained early tooth loss in children or adults may have a systemic cause and may be a feature of rare conditions such as HPP. As premature loss of primary teeth is often the first, and sometimes the only visible symptom of the milder phenotypes of HPP, dental practitioners can play a vital role in the early diagnosis, in dental management and in provision of preventive measures.

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